Nutrition

Whether or not you have gastro-intestinal symptoms, eating a balanced diet can help you to manage your condition and stay healthy.

The gut is affected in up to 90% of patients with systemic sclerosis, so an awareness of nutrition is particularly important if you have this form of the condition.

Nutrition and scleroderma

Many people living with scleroderma experience symptoms that can lead to a poor appetite and weight loss. Because of this, it's really important to choose a balanced diet and maintain weight within a healthy range. Doing so may help you to avoid the risk of heart, lung and kidney problems.

Some elements to ensure you include in your diet are:

Calcium

Calcium is important for healthy bones. Milk and dairy products are good sources of calcium. Other sources of calcium include; fish, dark green vegetables, pulses, seeds, nuts and fortified cereals. If you are taking steroids your body's requirements for calcium will be increased.

Vitamin D

Vitamin D is obtained from sunlight and is needed to help absorb and utilise calcium. Vitamin D can also be found in some fortified dietary items such as eggs, fat spreads (butter and margarine) and cereals.

Iron

The risk of anaemia is reduced with adequate intakes of iron, which can be found in red meat, poultry, fish, eggs and dark green leafy vegetables. Drinking a small amount of orange juice can help absorb iron due to the vitamin C content. Tea can reduce iron absorption, so should be avoided at meal times.

Omega 3 fats

Omega-3 fats can help protect against many diseases, including heart disease, and they can reduce inflammation in arthritis. It is also known to have a positive effect on mood. Sources of omega-3 include: oily fish such as sardines, mackerel, pilchards, salmon and fresh tuna. Rapeseed oil, walnuts and fortified eggs and margarines are also good sources.

Eating a balanced diet

If you are managing to keep up a healthy weight, try to ensure that you are having a balanced diet:

Fruits and Vegetables help to reduce pain and inflammation, they are a good source of fibre, and help regulate blood pressure and blood fats.

These fruits, vegetables and spices are believed to be particularly helpful for some people in managing scleroderma:

  • Ginger is found by many people to be a powerful anti-oxidant that has anti-inflammatory properties. Ginger may inhibit pain-producing prostaglandins.
  • Turmeric contains curcumin, which is also believed to have anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving properties.
  • Tart red cherries are found by some people to relieve pain and inflammation, if about 20 per day are eaten.
  • Fresh pineapple contains an enzyme called bromelain that is believed to be a powerful anti-inflammatory; it is also thought to help in the digestion of protein-rich foods. Two to three slices a day may help with recovery from surgery and enhance circulation.

Aim for five portions of fruit and vegetable portions per day – one portion = 80g. Be aware that if you have heartburn and reflux, you might be better off avoiding acidic citrus fruits.

Starchy foods are a good source of energy and the main source of a range of nutrients in our diet. As well as starch, they contain fibre, calcium, iron and B vitamins.

Beta-glucan, which is believed to be helpful in managing scleroderma, is found in cereal grains like barley, oats, rye and wheat.

Include at least two portions at every meal – one portion = one slice of bread (40g), two to three heaped tablespoons rice and pasta, three to four heaped tablespoons of breakfast cereal, or two medium-sized boiled potatoes.

Milk and dairy products are a good source of protein and calcium. Aim for two to three portions of dairy foods per day – one portion = 30g cheese, one small pot of yoghurt (150ml), or 200ml of milk.

Protein-rich foods help the body to grow and repair, so they are particularly important when you are recovering from surgery or ulcers. Aim for two to three portions of protein per day including one to two portions of oily fish per week – one portion = 80g cooked meat poultry and oily fish, 120g white fish, three tablespoons of baked beans, red kidney beans, chick peas or lentils, or one to two eggs.

Foods high in fat and sugar can have negative effects on health, so need to be kept to moderate amounts.

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